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Volition
發布時間:2019年08月14日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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Volition

意愿

 

A term used in the semantic analysis of grammatical categories, referring to a kind of relationship between an agent and a verb. A volitional verb or construction is one where the action takes place as a consequence of the agent’s choice, e.g. Mary left. A non-volitional verb or construction is one where the agent has no determining influence on the action, e.g. Mary slipped. Many verbs allow both interpretations (e.g. X hit Y - accidentally or on purpose?). The notion has also had a contrastive role in the analysis of the meanings of certain auxiliary verbs in English: for example, the volitional sense of will in I will go (in the sense of ‘it is my decision to go’) is distinguished from other sense, such as characteristic action (They’ll sit there for hours).

 

對語法范疇作語義分析的術語,指施事和動詞之間的一類關系。意愿動詞或構式是動作在施事的選擇下發生的動詞或構式,例如Mary left“瑪麗離去了”。非意愿動詞或構式則是施事對動作不起決定性作用,例如Mary slipped“瑪麗滑到了”。許多動詞可作兩種理解(例如X hit Y“甲擊中乙”—是偶然的還是有意的?)。這個概念在分析某些助動詞的意義時也起對比作用:例如I will go中的will作意愿義解時句子表示“我要去”;但will也可作其他義解,如表示動作很獨特(They’ll sit there for hours“他們會在那兒連著坐上幾個小時”)。

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