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Sustainable Transport in Cities
發布時間:2017年08月07日     江倩 譯  
來源: 英語世界
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Sustainable Transport in Cities

城市交通的可持續發展

 

How are the cities of today being shaped by a need for more sustainable transport?

可持續交通需求如何影響著城市發展?

 

By Tim Pryce 

文/蒂姆·普萊斯


Transport has always shaped cities. In Medieval times, crossroads gave birth to thriving market towns. Venice was built up around its canals. Industrial Britain’s development followed the route of railways and waterways. Many North American cities were created for the car. But how are the cities of today being shaped by a need for more sustainable transport? 


交通一直都影響著城市的發展。中世紀時期有十字路口的地方出現了集鎮,并日趨繁榮;威尼斯建在縱橫交錯的運河之上;英國的工業化在鐵路和水道沿線展開。北美的許多城市是為汽車的運行而建造的。那么,今天的城市如何適應更加可持續的交通發展需求呢? 


Cities are now home to over half of the global population, and have a large role to play in reducing carbon emissions and improving airquality. This will need new technologies and new ways of organising cities, alongside efficiency gains.


如今,城市容納了全球超過半數的人口,在減少碳排放和提高空氣質量方面發揮著舉足輕重的作用。這就要求我們在提高效率的同時,采用新技術,尋找城市規劃管理的新方法。 


Many local governments are accelerating change through policy initiatives such as integrated transport, congestion charges and low emission zones [1], sustainable procurement [2] and lifecycle costing [3], and opening data up to companies and academics. And these city level policies can move markets in more sustainable directions. For example, London is requiring all newly licensed taxis to be zero-emission capable from 2018. This has resulted in five vehicle manufacturers committing to meeting that deadline, which is both in their own commercial interests and good for the environment.


許多地方政府正在制定新政策加快轉變步伐,如打造綜合交通系統、征收擁堵費、規劃低排放區、進行可持續的采購和產品生命周期成本核算,向企業和專家學者開放數據等。這些市政措施可以推動市場朝著更加可持續的方向發展。例如,自2018年起,倫敦新上牌的出租車必須實現零排放,因而五家汽車制造商都力爭在截止日期前達到要求,這不僅符合其商業利益,也對環境有益。


[1] low emission zone低排放區,指為促進區域空氣質量改善,針對機動車等交通工具專門設定污染物排放限值的燃料限制區。 

 

[2] sustainable procurement可持續采購,指采購行為在實現“物有所值”基本經濟功能的同時,充分發揮推進可持續發展的政策功能作用。  

 

[3] lifecycle costing生命周期成本核算。生命周期成本(lifecycle cost)指在產品經濟有效使用期間所發生的與該產品有關的所有成本,包括開發(計劃、設計和測試)、生產(加工作業)以及后勤支持(廣告、銷售和保證等)。



There are three main ways cities can innovate to make transport more sustainable without increasing journey times:


在不增加行車時間的前提下,可通過以下三項措施革新交通方式,促進交通可持續發展: 


Better land use planning: The least dense cities, for example, Houston, have per capita carbon emissions nearly ten times higher than the densest, such as Singapore. City planners are using transit-oriented development [4] to increase density while maintaining quality of life and property value. This involves clustering mixed use developments [5] around a key transport hub [6], as with the KL Sentral [7] area in Kuala Lumpur, built around the largest railway station in Southeast Asia.


合理規劃土地:人口最稀少的城市(如休斯敦),其人均碳排放量是人口最稠密城市(如新加坡)的近10倍。因而城市規劃人員堅持公共交通導向型發展,以提高城市密度,同時維持生活質量,穩定房產價值。這也就意味著,需在主要交通樞紐附近打造多用途建筑群,如吉隆坡的中環廣場就建在東南亞最大的火車站周邊。


[4] transit-oriented development以公共交通為導向的發展模式,指以公交站點為中心、以400—800m(5—10分鐘步行路程)為半徑建立集工作、商業、文化、教育、居住等為一體的中心廣場或城市中心。 


[5] mixed use development混合功能發展,指將居住、商業、文化、機構和工業等功能融合在一起的城市發展模式。 

 

[6] hub中樞;樞紐。 

 

[7] =Kuala Lumpur Sentral吉隆坡中環廣場。位于中環廣場的吉隆坡中央車站(又稱吉隆坡中環廣場站)是吉隆坡主要的公共交通樞紐。 

 

Modal shift: Some cities, such as Delhi, are investing heavily in creating the mass transit systems needed to change how citizens travel. Others are using incentives and behavioural change to encourage people to choose more efficient – and often healthier – forms of transport. Copenhagen has a number of progressive cycling policies including the Green Wave [8], which allows people cycling at 20km/h to hit all green lights during rush hour. This supports commuting at a speed that keeps traffic moving, but is safe for the cyclist.


轉變出行模式:包括德里在內的諸多城市正大力投資公共運輸系統,改變市民出行方式。另一些城市正在通過建立獎勵機制和引導行為轉變,鼓勵人們選擇更高效、更健康的交通方式。哥本哈根已采取了若干積極政策,鼓勵市民騎車出行。他們出臺了“綠波”計劃,即高峰時段騎車保持20公里的時速即可暢享一路綠燈。如此既能確保交通順暢,也保證了騎車人的安全。


[8] Green Wave綠波,指在通向城市中心的干道上,通過區域協調交通信號控制系統,形成連續的交通流。   


Making existing transport modes more efficient: Lightweighting and new engine and fuel technologies are helping to make existing road and rail vehicles more efficient. However, it is not yet clear which technologies and fuels cities will back. The main options are hydrogen fuel cells, fossil fuel hybrids, and electric vehicles, and the optimum solution may well vary from city to city. Many options require city-level investment in new infrastructure – for example, the city of Gumi in South Korea is currently piloting a scheme that embeds [9]wireless charging for electric buses within the roads, helping to recharge vehicles on the move.


提高現有交通模式效率:輕量化、新型引擎以及燃料技術正在提高現有的道路和軌道交通的效率。不過,城市將采用何種技術、何種燃料尚無定論。目前主流選擇包括氫燃料電池、油氣混動和電動車輛等,各城市可因地制宜。很多方案都要求城市投資建設全新的基礎設施,如韓國的龜尾市正在實行試點,為給電動公交車充電而在道路中嵌入無線充電裝置,實現不停車充電。


[9] embed牢牢嵌入。 


There are already some great examples of cities taking significant steps in creating sustainable transport systems. In Manila, the Asian Development Bank is aiming to roll out 100,000 e-trikes [10] to replace current fossil fuel versions, which is not just good for the environment and health, but increases take-home pay for drivers by around 15%.


目前,許多城市在打造可持續交通系統方面取得了重大進展,提供了良好范例。亞洲開發銀行計劃在馬尼拉投放10萬臺電動三輪車,替代現有的化石燃料車輛。此舉不僅有利于環保與健康,還可將司機實得收入提高15%左右。


[10] e-trike電動三輪車。 


Hangzhou in China, which already has the world’s largest bike sharing scheme, has embraced the electric car. It is now installing multi-storey “vending machines” for ultra-compact electric cars [11], with a 75 mile range and costing just $3 an hour. There are around 50 of these in the city today and plans for many more. The city also has battery swapping facilities for around 500 electric taxis.


中國的杭州已是世界上最大的共享單車之城,也迎來了電動汽車時代。該市正在建造微型電動汽車立體租賃站,該類型電動汽車續航里程為75英里,成本每小時僅3美元。目前已建成50個站點,計劃建造更多。此外,杭州還推出了換電系統,可為500多輛電動出租車快速更換電池。


[11] 微型電動汽車立體租賃站,提供分時租賃服務。ultra compact指電動車外形迷你。 


The global need to cut carbon emissions and air pollution, at the same time, as improving human development, has created the demand for sustainable and accessible transport systems. Through their actions, city governments are helping to shape the cities of the future, today.           


減少碳排放、降低空氣污染,同時促進人類發展是全球共同需要,這也要求我們發展暢達的可持續交通系統。全球各城市政府部門正行動起來,打造未來的城市。


(譯者單位:中南大學外國語學院)


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